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Technical transformation of domestic spinning frame

in addition to summarizing the technical characteristics of domestic spinning frame drafting device, this paper also refers to the latest development of foreign similar new frames, and puts forward suggestions for the technical transformation of domestic spinning frame on the basis of practice

using ring spinning technology can make the fibers obtain good parallel arrangement effect, obtain real twist, and make full use of the strength of single fibers. The number of spinables and twist range are large, and the yarn feels soft. Therefore, ring spinning equipment has certain survival potential, which still accounts for a large proportion in the whole textile production field

ruitulida G30 spinning frame

modification of drafting mechanism

replace long and short leather rings with double short leather rings

domestic spinning frames generally use long and short leather rings. During production, because the long lower ring is easy to touch the front roller, the spacing of the front floating area is not easy to clamp, affecting the yarn quality; The speed unevenness of the long lower ring is greater than that of the short leather ring, which affects the quality; When the long lower ring is pressurized by its own weight, it is easy to hang the ring, and it is easy to break when using the tension roller; The long lower ring is made of more materials than the short one. Therefore, foreign new machines adopt double short leather rings, which overcomes the shortcomings of long and short leather rings

the HP spin set high-efficiency spinning frame successfully developed by suesen of Germany adopts a double short apron drafting device, the short bottom apron is guided and controlled by the apron support, and is equipped with a high-efficiency apron tensioner. The G30 spinning frame developed by Rieter of Switzerland adopts Rieter ri-q drafting device. The upper and lower leather rings of this three roller double short leather ring drafting device are guided by the leather ring frame to make the operation uniform. The upper ring is all made of rubber, and the lower ring can choose synthetic material or real leather according to the processed fiber and yarn requirements

design of the rear drafting area

the V-shaped large drafting device designed by INA walzlager in Germany, in order to strengthen the control of the fibers in the rear area and increase the rear drafting/total drafting multiple, the rear roller was raised and changed into a curve drafting, so that the rear drafting was increased to 2 times, and the total drafting could be increased to 50 times or more, but it also increased the rear drafting area machine. Due to the good experimental inspection conditions of hydraulic and air-conditioning accessories in this room, it was disassembled and inspected, and it was found that the plunger was seriously rusted, Corrosion and rust spots on the inner surface of the slide valve sleeve constitute the complexity of the damping structure setting

Rieter ri-q adopts P3.1 air shaking frame. The steel cradle is not easy to deform. The pressure is quickly reduced from the maximum to the minimum through the pressure relief mechanism in the hexagonal rod supporting the cradle by the head pressure reducing valve. The leather roller will not deform in case of shutdown or long-term production interruption. The rear draft can reach 1 to 3 times, and the total draft can reach about 80 times, which is very worthy of reference

the domestic spinning frame drafting device generally adopts the imitation s.k.f PK series cradle mechanical pressurization type, but because the material, especially the pressure spring material, is not qualified and the pressure is insufficient (not high), it does not adapt to the substantial increase of spindle speed. Pneumatic pressurization is more often used for foreign new machines. In addition to significantly improving the total pressure, the total pressure can also be adjusted steplessly, which is convenient for pressurization and relief (it does not need to be adjusted one by one on a 1000 ingot long car)

mechanical and pneumatic cradle

the pressure applied to the leather roller in the drafting area directly affects the arrangement of the friction boundary, and the strength and extension range of the friction boundary affect the control of fiber movement and yarn quality. Proper cradle pressure can improve the production quality, reduce the setting of unnecessary drafting additional mechanisms, and improve the rear drafting and total drafting multiple. Generally speaking, the speed of the front roller is always higher than that of the middle and rear gears, so the pressure of the front roller is also higher than that of the middle and rear gears

TSUMORI SKF PK PK cradle adopts a compression spring with extremely flat characteristic curve. Even if the epithelial roll shell is worn repeatedly, the degree of load reduction caused is extremely limited, which will not affect the drafting process, so there is no need to readjust the spring pressure

pk1500 series use lp314, lp316, lp317 type leather roller jacket, which can not be disassembled. The diameter of the leather roller is 33 mm, and the maximum pressure can reach 350 Newton. The lower roller uses UL type bearing, the large hole inner ring has a positioning bearing cover with a central convex head, and the bearing and the roller neck are flexibly matched to reduce the micro grinding between the bearing inner diameter and the roller neck, which can prolong the service life. The equipped roller neck is particularly thick

increasing the pressure of the cradle, and then adopting pneumatic pressure, can improve the yarn quality, which brings about the problems of increased gas and electricity consumption and increased wear. Therefore, in some foreign textile machinery factories, on each short car with 400 to 500 ingots, the front leather roller is pneumatically pressurized, and the metal experiment of the middle and rear leather rollers can also be calculated as a mechanically pressurized hybrid pressurized cradle with this method, so as to reduce the total consumption of compressed air and save electricity. It is suggested that the domestic spinning frame can also consider this kind of cradle as an intermediate measure for the transition from mechanical to pneumatic cradle

leather roller, leather ring and roller

the main component of the imported Armstrong leather roller and leather ring coating is lanolin, which plays a role of humidity balance with the change of relative humidity in the workshop, and can reduce the wrapping. Its surface structure is fine and tight, and the finer and tighter it is ground to the inner layer, so it is wear-resistant and durable. However, domestic leather rollers and aprons have thin surface and thick inner layer, which are not durable and need to be vigorously transformed

at present, both domestic spinning frames and foreign old machines use roller or double row ball bearing rollers, which are basically non removable. The G30 spinning frame top roller is covered with a hardened new rubber shell on the aluminum alloy shell, which requires little maintenance. After a certain period of use, the aluminum shell is collectively replaced, and can be used after cleaning and drying

the front and rear rollers of most models of domestic spinning frames are straight (some models are inclined), and the middle roller is knurled; The lower roller neck of SKF drafting device is particularly thick, and the lower roller adopts UL type bearings; The front and rear rollers of G30 spinning frame adopt special spiral grooves

synchronous toothed belt transmission

gear clearance brings large errors to the synchronous operation of the roller, which directly affects the unevenness of the product. Defects such as the integrity of the tooth shape and the outer circle, surface accuracy, gear eccentricity and so on will cause drafting waves. Gear transmission also has defects such as high noise and high energy consumption. In order to overcome the above shortcomings, part of the FA507 spinning locomotive head transmission produced by Shanghai No.2 spinning machine adopts toothed belt transmission, which is most in line with foreign new technology

the main transmission speed change of spinning frame can be divided into mechanical speed change and motor speed change. The former has less investment cost and small speed change range, while the latter has a large one-time investment cost, but the speed change range is large, so it can be stepless speed change without changing the belt pulley; It is possible to change the speed according to the tension change characteristics of the ring plate during each rise and fall, so as to achieve approximately constant tension spinning, reduce end breakage, especially small yarn end breakage, and then tap the speed potential of the spinning frame. The motor speed change can be divided into separate control or centralized control, creating conditions for the centralized control and management of the spinning workshop

coiling, speed and number of ingots per set

the main advantages of high-speed small coiling are high speed and high output; The disadvantages are that the roll is small, there are many joints in the subsequent process, the cloth quality is slightly poor, and the machine consumes more materials. There are few low-speed large reeling joints, and the cloth surface quality is good, but the speed is low, the output is low, and the equivalent power consumption is high

medium roll (42 × 195mm) spinning frame shows that the new joint mode of automatic winder has been accepted, so the domestic new machine adopts 42 × 180mm~2015mm medium roll packaging is feasible. The speed level of medium winding should be measured by controlling the spinning end breakage at 15 pieces of pure cotton/1000 spindles, 5 pieces of polyester cotton/1000 spindles, and the spindle speed at 16000 rpm, which is more beneficial to improving the service life of the machine and reducing maintenance. At the same time, the service life of special parts such as spindles and steel collars is significantly improved, the service life of spinning supplies such as spindle belts and steel coils is extended, and the energy consumption of spinning frames is reduced. In summer, due to the low calorific value of the spinning frame, the power consumption of the air conditioner is correspondingly reduced, so the comprehensive economic benefits are improved

the package size directly affects the configuration of spindle spacing and the number of spindles per spinning frame. In recent years, the super long spinning frame with 1000 spindles driven by dragon belt has been coming out in the world. It covers a small area, saves energy, costs less investment, shortens the spinning tour route, and is convenient for maintenance and management

domestic spinning frames are generally suitable to drive about 500 spindles. If you want to develop a 1000 ingot super long car, you can consider putting the main drive in the middle of the super long car, that is, the main motor is transmitted to the main shaft output through the high-speed flat belt to align its verticality end, and then it is connected with the two main shafts of 500 ingots before and after the drive respectively

power saving measures

due to the large number of spinning frames and large energy consumption of single machine, power saving is very important for textile mills

at present, the main drive of spinning frame still uses V-belt drive, and the transmission efficiency is only 0.96. Using high-strength flat belt, the transmission efficiency can reach more than 0.98, saving more than 2% electricity. Moreover, due to the uniform thickness of high-strength flat belt, the noise is significantly lower than that of V-belt transmission

ABS plastic roller disc is used to replace all the roller discs stamped with tinned steel sheet, which can save more than 1/3 of the weight, and the test shows that it can save 1% of electricity. If lighter engineering plastics are used, electricity can also be saved, but its wear resistance and impact toughness need to be considered to improve the service life of the plastic roller

general textile mills do not pay much attention to the size of spindle belt tension. In order to prevent spindle slipping, the spindle belt tension is often set too large. In fact, this is an uneconomical practice. The reasonable spindle belt tension should be determined according to the roll size and the number of spindles, spindle speed, spindle type, spindle disc diameter, spindle oil viscosity and other factors. Selecting the appropriate spindle belt tension will play a positive role in reducing energy consumption

at present, most of the plastic gauze tubes used are 19mm thick wall plastic tubes. For example, large diameter (20 to 22mm), thin-wall, light-weight plastic tubes are used. Although the increase in diameter causes the disadvantage of increasing air resistance, the large-diameter gauze tubes are small in volume, light in thin-wall mass, and also have certain power saving and discharge results

general technical improvement measures

at present, ordinary gray cast iron is used for spinning frame castings. Due to the poor wear resistance and durability caused by loose iron, it needs to be regularly readjusted and repaired to maintain or approach the original accuracy. It is suggested to use high-strength cast iron, which is not only durable and wear-resistant close to the nature of steel, but also has considerable shock absorption, so that the maintenance cycle is greatly extended

at present, ordinary bearings are mostly used. During the three shift continuous operation, under the operating conditions with large dust content in the workshop, the workload of maintenance and refueling is increased. During refueling, fibers and impurities are easy to enter the bearing oil cavity, affecting the service life of the bearing. If sealed bearings are used where sealed bearings may be used, they will not be refuelled after one-time assembly, and will be renewed and replaced at the time of ten-year overhaul, which will not only eliminate the refuelling of bearings, but also maintain high motion accuracy

in the past, the head of the transmission system of domestic spinning frames was open drive, and the sealing of the head cover was poor. In addition, the use of cast iron gears led to poor gear meshing, poor movement stability, and high noise during operation. Due to the long transmission route, large reduction ratio and two stepwise speed change points of the spinning frame, if the up draft transmission can be changed into closed transmission (the output end of the roller shaft is connected by universal coupling ball joints), the exposed change gears are all steel gears with high market share, and the long-distance transmission uses toothed belts, supplemented by collective lubrication and improving the sealing of the front door cover, the operating conditions will be greatly improved

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